Ca de Bou were kept on the island in history for blood sports like dog fighting and bull-baiting. It's likely mastiff dogs were their ancestors. Those were used for controlling the cattle on the island.
Ca de Bou is also known by a few names as well, like the Majorcan Bulldog, Majorcan Mastiff, or the Perro de Presa Mallorquin.
But in the 20th century, bullfighting and bull-baiting were outlawed, and these breeds became unemployed. The numbers of these breeds had begun to decline, and they were moving toward extinction.
Breed lovers from Spain began exhibiting them at the dog show to save them. In the 1960s, the FCI officially recognized this breed, and the United Kennel Club (UKC) recognized this breed as a guardian dog.